The ankle is composed of three bones, two joints, and the muscles, tendons and ligaments that connect them. The three bones are the tibia (shin bone), fibula (smaller leg bone) and the talus (a foot bone). The joints include the tibiotalar, or ankle joint, and the syndesmotic joint where the fibula and tibia connect.

The ankle is a hinge joint made up by the tibia and fibula, which form a mortise that surrounds the talus. The bottom of the tibia is called the tibial pilon, and it forms the roof of the ankle joint. A projection from the tibia, referred to as the medial malleolus, forms the inner border. An expansion of the fibula, referred to as the lateral malleolus, forms the outer border. The surfaces of the ankle joint are covered in articular cartilage, which protects the end of the bone. Loss of this cartilage is termed arthritis.

Many ligaments support the ankle joint. The deltoid ligament connects the medial malleolus to the talus, navicular, and calcaneus. Three ligaments, named for their attachments, the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments and the calcaneofibular ligament, support the lateral ankle. The syndesmosis is a group of four ligaments that hold the distal tibia and fibula together. An injury to these ligaments will cause the bones to separate.

Mechanism of Injury

The ankle can be injured as a result of trauma, repetitive use, or degeneration that occurs with age. Trauma is a leading cause of injury in the young. Twisting injuries, which occur with or without contact with a second person, can lead to tears of the ligaments. Repetitive use is a common cause of ankle injury. People whose occupations require a large amount of climbing, squatting or stooping are particularly susceptible to the development of ankle pain. Athletes who participate in endurance sports such as running, or sports that require sudden changes of direction, such as basketball and soccer, or jumping such as basketball and volleyball, are at increased risk of ankle injuries.

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Dr. Subair Khan in SUN TV

Dr. Subair Khan - Chief Doctor and MD of Orthomed Hospitals was featured in Sun TV at Virunthinar Pakkam. He is Explaining about the Orthopaedic & Sports Related Issues in Current Life Style....